these in afghanistan, which is we're facing today in afghanistan is a question of state formation. it's similar to the question we're facing in 2004 to 2002. i think some of these findings in the chapter are useful. and what, i mean, by that is i believe that the u.s. has never seriously attempted to build the afghan state. if you look at the 2002 to 2004 period, what happened is on one hand they poured money, expertise in to the center, in to kabul to scar -- karzai's government. at the same time we had a number of independent and unilateral agreements, people -- this would be for example, the governor of kandahar in 2002. or, you know, there's a serious of private maliciouses that were funded and supported. while we were putting money in to create the afghan police, we were also giving money to the governor of kandahar for him to maintain the private militia.